A large number of ethnicities have inhabited Mongolia since prehistoric times. Most of these people were nomads who, from time to time, formed confederations that rose to prominence. The first of these, the Xiongnu, were brought together to form a confederation by Modun Shanyu in 209 BC. In 1206, Chinggis Khan (also known as Genghis Khan) founded the Mongol Empire, the largest empire in history. The Mongol Empire’s territory extended from present-day Poland in the west to the Korean peninsula in the east, from Siberia in the north to the Arab peninsula and Vietnam in the south, covering approximately 33 million square kilometers. In 1227, after Chinggis Khan’s death, the Mongol Empire was subdivided into four kingdoms. In 1260, Chinggis Khan’s grandson, Kublai Khan, ascended the throne of one of the four kingdoms that encompassed present-day Mongolia and China. In 1271, Kublai Khan formally established the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan Dynasty was the first foreign dynasty to rule all of China until it was overthrown by the Chinese Ming Dynasty in 1368.

The Mongol court returned to its native land, however, centuries of internal conflict, expansion and contraction brought them fall into Manchu Qing dynasty.  They conquered Inner Mongolia in 1636. Outer Mongolia was submitted in 1691. For the next two hundred years Mongolia was ruled by the Qing Dynasty until 1911. Mongolia declared its independence in 1911 under the Bogd Khan, the spiritual leader of Mongolia’s Tibetan Buddhism. However, the Chinese government still considered “Outer Mongolia” as part of it and invaded the country in 1919.

In 1921, People’s Revolution won in Mongolia with the help of the Russian Red Army and thus Mongolia became the second socialist country in the world. After Bogd Khan’s death in 1924, the Mongolian People’s Republic was proclaimed and the first Constitution was adopted.

Mongolia was under a Soviet-dominated Communist regime for almost 70 years, from 1921 to 1990.  In the fall of 1989 and the spring of 1990, new currents of political thought began to emerge in Mongolia, inspired by the glasnost and perestroika in the Soviet Union and the collapse of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe. In March 1990, a democratic revolution that started with hunger strikes to overthrow the Government led to the peaceful renouncement of communism. Mongolia’s renouncement of communism led to a multi-party system, a new constitution and a transition to a market economy.

Over the past two decades, Mongolia has transformed itself from a socialist country with a planned economy into a vibrant multi-party democracy with one of the world’s fastest growing economies.


BC 800.000-Homo erectus inhabited on the land of Mongolia.

BC 209- Founded the first powerful empire in Central Asia, known as the Xiongnu and ruled by Modun Shanui.

BC 1 st Century to 234 AD-The second Mongolian Empire Xianbei existed.

AD 330-550-The 3 rd Mongolian Empire Rouran existed.

AD 550-740-The 1 st Turkic Empire existed.

AD 744-840-Uigur Empire existed.

AD 840-906- Kirghiz tribes become powerful

AD 906-1125-Khitan Empire existed.

1162-Temujin was born in the Khentii Mountains of today’s Mongolia.

1189-Temujin was given the title Chinggis khan and becomes the king of United Mongolia.

1205-Chinggis khan united all of nomadic tribes at who were settled around at Baikal Lake to China’s great wall.

1206-Chinggis khan becomes the Great khan of Mongol empire.

1206-1263 - Following unification of the Mongol tribes, Genghis Khan launches a campaign of conquest. His sons and grandsons create the world's biggest land empire.

1267-1368 - Weakened by disunity, the empire implodes. Ming troops oust the Mongols from Dadu - present-day Beijing.

(1368 - 1600) Mongols were confined to their original homeland

1636 - The Manchu (Qing) empire conquers the southern Mongols, creating Inner Mongolia.

1691 - The Qing Empire offers protection to the northern Mongols, creating Outer Mongolia.

1727 - The Treaty of Kyakhta fixes the western border between the Russian and Manchu empires, confirming Qing dominion over Mongolia and Tuva.

1754-1911-Under Manchu’s colony.

1911 - The Qing dynasty falls and Outer Mongolia declares its independence. Russia and the Republic of China recognize its autonomy.

1919 - The Chinese army occupied Outer Mongolia.

1920 - Mongolian revolutionaries found the Mongolian People's Party and open contact with Bolsheviks in Siberia.

1921 – Mongolia declared independence from China with the help of Red Army of Russia.

1924 - The Mongolian People's Republic is proclaimed.

(1937) Stalinist purges began, monasteries were destroyed, more than 30,000 people, including lamas, were killed.

(1939) In Battle of Khalhyn Gol (Nomonhan), Mongolian and Soviet troops led by General Zhukov defeated Japanese and Manchukuo forces.

(1945 - 1946) Soviet control in Mongolia was preserved at Yalta Conference.

(1961) Mongolian People's Republic became member of United Nations.

1990-Democratic revolution, failure of Communism.


The modern day Democratic Republic of Mongolia, free from centuries of Chinese and Soviet control, is committed to planning for the future while preserving its past and its pristine natural environment. Cities like Ulaanbaatar, where most of the population lives, have commerce, industry, high-rises, and cyber cafes—and are as cosmopolitan as any Western cities. Just a few miles away from the urban centers, though, you’ll still find nomads tending their Gers. One third of populations continue to live traditionally, tending their herds and keeping their unique culture.